• Arrhythmia
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Heart infections


An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm. Some arrhythmias can cause problems with contractions of your heart chambers by not allowing the top chambers (atria) to squeeze correctly. 

The choice will be based on the type of arrhythmia you have, how severe your symptoms are, and if you have other conditions such as diabetes, kidney failure, or heart failure. Your healthcare provider will discuss your treatment options with you.

Usual Symptoms:

  • Weakness
  • Fainting
  • Heart failure


Atherosclerosis is thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. Can cause a heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, or blood clot.

Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls. This buildup is called plaque. The plaque can cause your arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot.

Usual Symptoms:

  • Chest Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath


Cardiomyopathy causes the heart to lose its ability to pump blood well. In some cases, the heart rhythm also becomes disturbed. This leads to irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias).

Viral infections in the heart are a major cause of cardiomyopathy. In some cases, another disease or its treatment can cause for the cardiomyopathy. This might include complex heart disease that’s present at birth (congenital).

Usual Symptoms:

  • High blood pressure
  • Viral infections
  • Muscle disorders

Congenital heart defects

A congenital heart defect (CHD) is a heart problem that a baby has at birth. It is caused by abnormal formation of the heart during growth in the womb. There is no known reason for it.

Most cases of congenital heart defect have no known cause. But some types of congenital heart defects occur more often when the mother comes in contact with some types of dangerous substances in the first few weeks of her pregnancy.

Usual Symptoms:

  • Chest Pain
  • Lupus
  • Connective tissue disorder

Heart infections

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition where the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever. The heart valve damage may start shortly after untreated infection.

Untreated or under-treated strep infections can increase the risk for rheumatic heart disease. This may take years to develop and can lead to heart failure. Rheumatic fever can occur at any age. But it often occurs in children ages 5 to 15.

Usual Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chest discomfort
  • Swelling